Pdf ebook: Denying Existence

Pdf download ebook Denying Existence

Summary: This book tries to explore, in language as non-technical as possible, the deepest philosophical problems regarding the logical status of empty (singular) t

  • Author : ,
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9401712239
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 260
  • Language: English
  • Views: 701
  • Downloads: 701
  • GET EBOOK

Description: This book tries to explore, in language as non-technical as possible, the deepest philosophical problems regarding the logical status of empty (singular) terms such as `Pegasus', `Batman', `The impossible staircase departs in Escher's painting `Ascending-Descending'+ etc., and regarding sentences which deny the existence of singled-out fictional entities. It will be fascinating for literary theorists with a flair for logic, to students of metaphysics and philosophy of language, and for historians of philosophy interested in the fate of the Russell-Meinong debate. For teachers of these aspects of analytic philosophy this will provide a textbook which goes beyond the Western tradition (without plunging into any mystical Eastern `Emptiness', which is what some previous comparative philosophers did!).


Pdf ebook: The End of Existence

Pdf download ebook The End of Existence

Summary: First published in 1998, this volume aims to counter the paradoxes of causality and induction as presented by empirical scepticism, though the work is not

  • Author : Garvin Rampersad
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 0429798369
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 166
  • Language: English
  • Views: 773
  • Downloads: 773
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: First published in 1998, this volume aims to counter the paradoxes of causality and induction as presented by empirical scepticism, though the work is not a dry critique of others' efforts in this area. In order to address these issues, the author presents his instinctive belief in the interconnectedness of the world's elements from a conceptual point of view. The work is not epistemological, but metaphysical and logical, and the assumptions are made in these areas. The principal concept is "membership", which appears in logic, language and metaphysics. Truth, existence and reference are shown to be forms of membership and, as such, invalid concepts. The famous paradoxes stretch from that of the liar to Russell's result from this misconception, which is responsible for the paradoxes of causality and induction.


Pdf ebook: Denying the Holocaust

Pdf download ebook Denying the Holocaust

Summary: The denial of the Holocaust has no more credibility than the assertion that the earth is flat. Yet there are those who insist that the death of six million

  • Author : Deborah E. Lipstadt
  • Publisher: Simon and Schuster
  • ISBN: 1476727481
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: 288
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1916
  • Downloads: 1916
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: The denial of the Holocaust has no more credibility than the assertion that the earth is flat. Yet there are those who insist that the death of six million Jews in Nazi concentration camps is nothing but a hoax perpetrated by a powerful Zionist conspiracy. Sixty years ago, such notions were the province of pseudohistorians who argued that Hitler never meant to kill the Jews, and that only a few hundred thousand died in the camps from disease; they also argued that the Allied bombings of Dresden and other cities were worse than any Nazi offense, and that the Germans were the “true victims” of World War II. For years, those who made such claims were dismissed as harmless cranks operating on the lunatic fringe. But as time goes on, they have begun to gain a hearing in respectable arenas, and now, in the first full-scale history of Holocaust denial, Deborah Lipstadt shows how—despite tens of thousands of living witnesses and vast amounts of documentary evidence—this irrational idea not only has continued to gain adherents but has become an international movement, with organized chapters, “independent” research centers, and official publications that promote a “revisionist” view of recent history. Lipstadt shows how Holocaust denial thrives in the current atmosphere of value-relativism, and argues that this chilling attack on the factual record not only threatens Jews but undermines the very tenets of objective scholarship that support our faith in historical knowledge. Thus the movement has an unsuspected power to dramatically alter the way that truth and meaning are transmitted from one generation to another.


Pdf ebook: Melancholy

Pdf download ebook Melancholy

Summary: Alberto Manguel praises the Hungarian writer László Földényi as “one of the most brilliant essayists of our time.” Földényi’s extraordinary Mel

  • Author : László F. Földényi (Foldenyi)
  • Publisher: Yale University Press
  • ISBN: 0300220693
  • Genre: Literary Criticism
  • Number of Pages: 360
  • Language: English
  • Views: 903
  • Downloads: 903
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: Alberto Manguel praises the Hungarian writer László Földényi as “one of the most brilliant essayists of our time.” Földényi’s extraordinary Melancholy, with its profusion of literary, ecclesiastical, artistic, and historical insights, gives proof to such praise. His book, part history of the term melancholy and part analysis of the melancholic disposition, explores many centuries to explore melancholy’s ambiguities. Along the way Földényi discovers the unrecognized role melancholy may play as a source of energy and creativity in a well-examined life. Földényi begins with a tour of the history of the word melancholy, from ancient Greece to the medieval era, the Renaissance, and modern times. He finds the meaning of melancholy has always been ambiguous, even paradoxical. In our own times it may be regarded either as a psychic illness or a mood familiar to everyone. The author analyzes the complexities of melancholy and concludes that its dual nature reflects the inherent tension of birth and mortality. To understand the melancholic disposition is to find entry to some of the deepest questions one’s life. This distinguished translation brings Földényi’s work directly to English-language readers for the first time.


Pdf ebook: J.M.E. McTaggart

Pdf download ebook J.M.E. McTaggart

Summary: The book is intended for such undergraduate, post-graduate students and research scholars who are interested in the areas of metaphysics, ontology, philoso

  • Author : Ramesh K. Sharma
  • Publisher: Lexington Books
  • ISBN: 0739186760
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 542
  • Language: English
  • Views: 396
  • Downloads: 396
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: The book is intended for such undergraduate, post-graduate students and research scholars who are interested in the areas of metaphysics, ontology, philosophy of mind, philosophy of religion, idealism, or in the philosophical problems of substance, universals, self, immortality, God/Absolute, monism-pluralism debate, perception, Indian doctrine of karma (action). Its special readership of course includes students of McTaggart’s philosophy, McTaggart scholars, scholars of Neo-Hegelian or British Idealism, and students and scholars of early analytic philosophy.


Pdf ebook: A Companion to Ayn Rand

Pdf download ebook A Companion to Ayn Rand

Summary: The first volume to offer a comprehensive scholarly treatment of Rand’s entire corpus (including her novels, her philosophical essays, and her analysis o

  • Author : Allan Gotthelf,Gregory Salmieri
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118324919
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Views: 463
  • Downloads: 463
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: The first volume to offer a comprehensive scholarly treatment of Rand’s entire corpus (including her novels, her philosophical essays, and her analysis of the events of her times), this Companion provides vital orientation and context for scholars and educated readers grappling with a controversial and understudied thinker whose enduring influence on American (and world) culture is increasingly recognized. The first publication to provide an in-depth scholarly treatment ranging over the whole of Rand’s corpus Provides informed contextual analysis for scholars in a variety of disciplines Presents original research on unpublished material and drafts from the Rand archives in California Features insightful and fair-minded interpretations of Rand’s controversial positions


Pdf ebook: Non-Propositional Intentionality

Pdf download ebook Non-Propositional Intentionality

Summary: The mind is directed upon the world. There are worldly things that we have beliefs about and things in the world we desire to have happen. We find some thi

  • Author : Alex Grzankowski,Michelle Montague
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0191046531
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 272
  • Language: English
  • Views: 801
  • Downloads: 801
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: The mind is directed upon the world. There are worldly things that we have beliefs about and things in the world we desire to have happen. We find some things fearsome and others likable. The puzzle of intentionality — how it is that our minds make contact with the world — is one of the oldest and most vexed issues facing philosophers. Many contemporary philosophers and cognitive scientists have been attracted to the idea that our minds represent the world. This book explores an important assumption about representation, namely, that when we represent things in the world, we represent them as having properties, and in this way our representations have "propositional" structure. The contributors examine what the commitment to propositionalism amounts to; illuminate why one might find the thesis attractive (or unattractive); and consider ways in which one might depart from propositionalism. The hope is that this will lead towards a more complete understanding of how the mind and world are connected.


Pdf ebook: The Laws of Thought

Pdf download ebook The Laws of Thought

Summary: The Laws of Thought is an exploration of the deductive and inductive foundations of rational thought. The author here clarifies and defends Aristotle’s T

  • Author : Avi Sion
  • Publisher: Avi Sion
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 356
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1666
  • Downloads: 1666
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: The Laws of Thought is an exploration of the deductive and inductive foundations of rational thought. The author here clarifies and defends Aristotle’s Three Laws of Thought, called the Laws of Identity, Non-contradiction and Exclusion of the Middle – and introduces two more, which are implicit in and crucial to them: the Fourth Law of Thought, called the Principle of Induction, and the Fifth Law of Thought, called the Principle of Deduction. This book is a thematic compilation drawn from past works by the author over a period of twenty-three years.


Pdf ebook: Ontological Proofs Today

Pdf download ebook Ontological Proofs Today

Summary: The book Ontological Proofs Today, apart from the introduction, consists of six parts. Part II comprises papers each of which pertains either to historical

  • Author : Miroslaw Szatkowski
  • Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
  • ISBN: 3110325888
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 520
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1253
  • Downloads: 1253
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: The book Ontological Proofs Today, apart from the introduction, consists of six parts. Part II comprises papers each of which pertains either to historical ontological arguments, or to some other, rather new, ontological arguments, but what makes them stand out from the other papers in this volume, is the fact that they all treat of the omniscience or the omnipotence of God. Part III includes papers which introduce new ontological arguments for the existence of God, without referring to omniscience and omnipotence as the transparent attributes of God. The issue of the type of necessity with which ontological proofs work or may work is raised in the articles of Part IV. In Part V the semantics for some ontological proofs are defined. Part VI consists of papers which, although quite different from each other in terms of content, all explore some ontological issues, and formal ontology may be considered the link between them. Part VII comprises two articles, by R. E. Maydole and G. Oppy, mutually controversial and different in their assessment of some ontological proofs.


Pdf ebook: Nagarjuna

Pdf download ebook Nagarjuna

Summary: This is a completely new translation of Nagarjuna's major work, the Mulamadhyamakakarika, accompanied by a detailed annotation of each of the verses. The a

  • Author : David J. Kalupahana
  • Publisher: SUNY Press
  • ISBN: 143840820X
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 412
  • Language: English
  • Views: 490
  • Downloads: 490
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: This is a completely new translation of Nagarjuna's major work, the Mulamadhyamakakarika, accompanied by a detailed annotation of each of the verses. The annotation identifies the metaphysical theories of the scholastics criticized by Nagarjuna, and traces the source material and the arguments utilized in his refutation back to the early discourses of the Buddha. The Introduction presents a completely new hypothesisthe nature of the treatise. The work is a grand commentary on the Buddha's "Discourse to Katyayana" (Kaccayanaqotta-sutta). The concluding part of the Introduction compares the teachings of the Buddha and Nagarjuna in regard to epistemology, ontology, ethics and philosophy of language indicating how the latter was making a determined attempt to reconstruct the Buddha's teachings in a very faithful manner, avoiding the substantialist metaphysics of the scholastics. The book shows that Nagarjuna's ideas are neither original nor are they an advancement from the early Buddhist period. Nagarjuna is not a Mahayanist.


Pdf ebook: Logic

Pdf download ebook Logic

Summary: Bringing elementary logic out of the academic darkness into the light of day, Paul Tomassi makes logic fully accessible for anyone attempting to come to gr

  • Author : Paul Tomassi
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134705913
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Views: 608
  • Downloads: 608
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: Bringing elementary logic out of the academic darkness into the light of day, Paul Tomassi makes logic fully accessible for anyone attempting to come to grips with the complexities of this challenging subject. Including student-friendly exercises, illustrations, summaries and a glossary of terms, Logic introduces and explains: * The Theory of Validity * The Language of Propositional Logic * Proof-Theory for Propositional Logic * Formal Semantics for Propositional Logic including the Truth-Tree Method * The Language of Quantificational Logic including the Theory of Descriptions. Logic is an ideal textbook for any logic student: perfect for revision, staying on top of coursework or for anyone wanting to learn about the subject. Related downloadable software for Macs and PCs is available for this title at www.logic.routledge.com.


Pdf ebook: The Proof of the External World

Pdf download ebook The Proof of the External World

Summary: ÒDescartes' attempt to ground the possibility of human knowledge in the existence of God was judged to be a complete failure by his contemporaries, and th

  • Author : Steven M. Duncan
  • Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
  • ISBN: 1556351097
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 244
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1766
  • Downloads: 1766
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: ÒDescartes' attempt to ground the possibility of human knowledge in the existence of God was judged to be a complete failure by his contemporaries, and this remains the universal opinion of philosophers to this day, despite the fact that three and a half centuries of secular epistemology--which attempts to ground the possibility of knowledge either in the unaided human intellect or in natural processes--has failed to do any better. Further, the leading twentieth-century attempts at theistic epistemology reject both the conception of knowledge and the standards of epistemic evaluation that Descartes takes for granted. ÒIn this book--partly an interpretation of Descartes and partly an attempt to complete his project-- the author attempts to show that a theistic epistemology incorporating Platonic and Aristotelian/Thomist elements can revitalize the Cartesian approach to the solution of the central problems of epistemology, including that most elusive of prizes--the proof of the external world.Ó --From the author's preface


Pdf ebook: The Conceptual Structure of Reality

Pdf download ebook The Conceptual Structure of Reality

Summary: This book describes a novel conception of reality, one that uniquely incorporates an idealistic view of existence with an account of objectivity. It introd

  • Author : Gal Yehezkel
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319071858
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 139
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1104
  • Downloads: 1104
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: This book describes a novel conception of reality, one that uniquely incorporates an idealistic view of existence with an account of objectivity. It introduces a general model of conceptual analysis and demonstrates its effectiveness in exposing and establishing the existence of conceptual ties. The book begins by introducing the tools and principles needed for the conceptual analysis undertaken in chapters that follow. Next, it presents a detailed examination into existence, contingency, idealism, self-consciousness and natural laws. In the process, the author critically examines the conceptions of existence held by Kant, Frege and Russell; argues that the determinations of past, present and future are subjective in the sense that they imply the existence of consciousness in relation to which they are fixed; shows that every possible reality includes sufficient conditions for self-consciousness; and confronts the question of the "uniformity of nature," which states that reality is subject to natural laws. In the end, the idealistic conception of reality developed in this book implies that existence is relative, rather than absolute, in the sense that it is determined in relation to a point of view internal to reality. This view of existence implies that reality necessarily exists.


Pdf ebook: From the Socratics to the Socratic Schools

Pdf download ebook From the Socratics to the Socratic Schools

Summary: In the two golden centuries that followed the death of Socrates, ancient philosophy underwent a tremendous transformation that culminated in the philosophi

  • Author : Ugo Zilioli
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1317516079
  • Genre: History
  • Number of Pages: 216
  • Language: English
  • Views: 548
  • Downloads: 548
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: In the two golden centuries that followed the death of Socrates, ancient philosophy underwent a tremendous transformation that culminated in the philosophical systematizations of Plato, Aristotle and the Hellenistic schools. Fundamental figures other than Plato were active after the death of Socrates; his immediate pupils, the Socratics, took over his legacy and developed it in a variety of ways. This rich philosophical territory has however been left largely underexplored in the scholarship. This collection of eleven previously unpublished essays by leading scholars fills a gap in the literature, providing new insight into the ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology as developed by key figures of the Socratic schools. Analyzing the important contributions that the Socratics and their heirs have offered ancient philosophical thought, as well as the impact these contributions had on philosophy as a discipline, this book will appeal to researchers and scholars of Classical Studies, as well as Philosophy and Ancient History.


Pdf ebook: In Defense of Aristotle's Laws of Thought

Pdf download ebook In Defense of Aristotle's Laws of Thought

Summary: In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought addresses, from a phenomenological standpoint, numerous modern and Buddhist objections and misconceptions regar

  • Author : Avi Sion
  • Publisher: Avi Sion
  • ISBN:
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 184
  • Language: English
  • Views: 657
  • Downloads: 657
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought addresses, from a phenomenological standpoint, numerous modern and Buddhist objections and misconceptions regarding the basic principles of Aristotelian logic.


Pdf ebook: Logical and Spiritual Reflections

Pdf download ebook Logical and Spiritual Reflections

Summary: Logical and Spiritual Reflections is a collection of six shorter philosophical works, including: Hume’s Problems with Induction; A Short Critique of Kant

  • Author : Avi Sion
  • Publisher: Avi Sion
  • ISBN: 2970009196
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 402
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1087
  • Downloads: 1087
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: Logical and Spiritual Reflections is a collection of six shorter philosophical works, including: Hume’s Problems with Induction; A Short Critique of Kant’s Unreason; In Defense of Aristotle’s Laws of Thought; More Meditations; Zen Judaism; No to Sodom.


Pdf ebook: Modes of Existence

Pdf download ebook Modes of Existence

Summary: The volume collects essays by an international team of philosophers aimed at elucidating three fundamental and interconnected themes in ontology. In the fi

  • Author : Andrea Bottani,Richard Davies
  • Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
  • ISBN: 3110327538
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 240
  • Language: English
  • Views: 998
  • Downloads: 998
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: The volume collects essays by an international team of philosophers aimed at elucidating three fundamental and interconnected themes in ontology. In the first instance, there is the issue of the kind of thing that, in the primary sense, is or exists: must the primitive terms be particular or universal? Any reply will itself raise the question of how to treat discourse that appears to refer to things that cannot be met with in time and space: what difference is there between saying that someone is not sad and saying that something does not exist? If we can speak meaningfully about fictions, what makes those statements true (or false) and how can the entities in question be identified? Assessment of the options that have been opened up in these fields since the work of Bertrand Russell and Alexius Meinong at the beginning of the twentieth century remains an important testing-ground for metaphysical principles and intuitions.


Pdf ebook: Basic Modern Philosophy of Religion

Pdf download ebook Basic Modern Philosophy of Religion

Summary: This book provides a reasoned, comprehensive understanding of what religion is as well as a clear and critical assessment of whether, in the light of moder

  • Author : Frederick Ferré
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135976414
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 480
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1132
  • Downloads: 1132
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: This book provides a reasoned, comprehensive understanding of what religion is as well as a clear and critical assessment of whether, in the light of modern developments in philosophy, contemporary thinking people can responsibly maintain religious belief in God. The book is divided into three major sections: the first deals with what all religions may be said to have in common; the second discusses theistic religion and the issue of intellectually responsible belief in God; the third examines current developments within a particular theistic religion, Christianity. Originally published in 1968, the book is basic, both in the nature of the issues it discusses and in the clarity and comprehensiveness of its presentation; it is varied in the arguments and perspectives dealt with; it provides an introduction to philosophical thinking through the problems of philosophy of religion; and it deals seriously with controversial movements in theology.


Pdf ebook: Plato’s Republic

Pdf download ebook Plato’s Republic

Summary:

  • Author : R C Cross,A D Woozley
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1349028517
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 295
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1111
  • Downloads: 1111
  • DOWNLOAD

Description:


Pdf ebook: Empty Representations

Pdf download ebook Empty Representations

Summary: It is the linguistic job of singular terms to pick out the objects that we think or talk about. But what about singular terms that seem to fail to designat

  • Author : Manuel García-Carpintero,Genoveva Martí
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191053694
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 368
  • Language: English
  • Views: 366
  • Downloads: 366
  • DOWNLOAD

Description: It is the linguistic job of singular terms to pick out the objects that we think or talk about. But what about singular terms that seem to fail to designate anything, because the objects they refer to don't exist? We can employ these terms in meaningful thought and talk, which suggests that they are succeeding in fulfilling their representational task. A team of leading experts presents new essays on the much-debated problem of empty reference and thought. In the 1960s and 1970s Keith Donnellan, David Kaplan, Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam initiated a revolution in the then standard conception of reference—a concept at the core of philosophical inquiry. The repercussions of the revolution, particularly felt in metaphysics and epistemology, were soon refined by other influential writers such as Tyler Burge, Gareth Evans, and John Perry. They argued that some linguistic and mental representations have contents individuated by what they are about—by ordinary referents of expressions such as proper names, indexicals, definite descriptions and common nouns, i.e. by planets, people or natural kinds. The view was at odds with a central philosophical presumption at that time: that cognitive and linguistic access to objective reality is indirect and accidental, mediated by general descriptive characterizations, the only constitutive semantic feature of the expressions; hence its ontological and epistemological repercussions. A turning-point in the debate about how linguistic and mental representation reach external contents concerned the nature of empty mental and linguistic representations, framed by means of the very same expressions crucially invoked in the Donnellan-Kaplan-Kripke-Putnam arguments. The papers in this volume address different aspects of reference and thought about the (apparently) non-existent.