Pdf ebook: Natural Moralities

Pdf download ebook Natural Moralities

Summary: In this book, David B. Wong defends an ambitious and important new version of moral relativism. He does not espouse the type of relativism that says anythi

  • Author :
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 9780199724840
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 312
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1876
  • Downloads: 1876
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Description: In this book, David B. Wong defends an ambitious and important new version of moral relativism. He does not espouse the type of relativism that says anything goes, but he does start with a relativist stance against alternative theories such that there need not be only one universal truth. Wong proposes that there can be a plurality of true moralities existing across different traditions and cultures, all with one core human question as to how we can all live together.


Pdf ebook: Moral Relativism and Chinese Philosophy

Pdf download ebook Moral Relativism and Chinese Philosophy

Summary: A wide-ranging consideration of the work of contemporary ethicist David Wong. Original, influential, and often controversial, ethicist David Wong defends f

  • Author : Yang Xiao,Yong Huang
  • Publisher: SUNY Press
  • ISBN: 1438450966
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 293
  • Language: English
  • Views: 479
  • Downloads: 479
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Description: A wide-ranging consideration of the work of contemporary ethicist David Wong. Original, influential, and often controversial, ethicist David Wong defends forms of moral relativism. His 1984 Moral Relativity was a study of this concept, and his 2006 Natural Moralities presented a new and sophisticated account of it. Wong’s vision is of a pluralistic moral relativism; he does not defend all forms of relativism but evaluates what moralities may be true. His singular philosophy reflects his deep knowledge of Confucian and Daoist thought. In this book, moral philosophers and scholars of Chinese thought debate ideas central to Wong’s work and Wong responds to them. The discussion ranges widely, including exploring Wong’s thought on naturalism, criteria for moralities, the principle of charity, moral authority, and the concept of community, and looking at his readings of Xunzi and Zhuangzi. Wong’s nuanced and forceful responses clarify and develop further arguments in his work. These engaging and critical exchanges between Wong and his critics illuminate not only Wong’s thought, but also contemporary ethical theory and Chinese philosophy.


Pdf ebook: Relativism and Human Rights

Pdf download ebook Relativism and Human Rights

Summary: When he nished writing, he raised his eyes and looked at me. From that day I have thought about Doktor Pannwitz many times and in many ways. I have asked m

  • Author : Claudio Corradetti
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 140209986X
  • Genre: Law
  • Number of Pages: 170
  • Language: English
  • Views: 797
  • Downloads: 797
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Description: When he nished writing, he raised his eyes and looked at me. From that day I have thought about Doktor Pannwitz many times and in many ways. I have asked myself how he really functioned as a man; how he lled his time, outside of the Polymerization and the Indo- Germanic conscience; above all when I was once more a free man, I wanted to meet him again, not from a spirit of revenge, but merely from a personal curiosity about the human soul. Because that look was not one between two men; and if I had known how completely to explain the nature of that look, which came as if across the glass window of an aquarium between two beings who live in different worlds, I would also have explained the essence of the great insanity of the third Germany. PRIMO LEVI [If this is a man, pp. 111–112, in, If this is a man and The truce, trans. S. Woolf, Abacus, London, 1987] If all propositions, even the contingent ones, are resolved into identical propositions, are they not all necessary? My answer is: certainly not. For even if it is certain that what is more perfect is what will exist, the less perfect is nevertheless still possible. In propositions of fact, existence is involved. LEIBNIZ [Samtlic ̈ he schriften und briefe vol VI pt 4 Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1449A VI 4] We live in a rule-constrained world.


Pdf ebook: Equitable Research Partnerships

Pdf download ebook Equitable Research Partnerships

Summary: This open access book offers insights into the development of the ground-breaking Global Code of Conduct for Research in Resource-Poor Settings (GCC) and t

  • Author : Doris Schroeder
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3030157458
  • Genre: Business ethics
  • Number of Pages: 122
  • Language: English
  • Views: 595
  • Downloads: 595
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Description: This open access book offers insights into the development of the ground-breaking Global Code of Conduct for Research in Resource-Poor Settings (GCC) and the San Code of Research Ethics. Using a new, intuitive moral framework predicated on fairness, respect, care and honesty, both codes target ethics dumping - the export of unethical research practices from a high-income setting to a lower- or middle-income setting. The book is a rich resource of information and argument for any research stakeholder who opposes double standards in research. It will be indispensable for applicants to European Union framework programmes, as the GCC is now a mandatory reference document for EU funding.


Pdf ebook: Foundations for Moral Relativism

Pdf download ebook Foundations for Moral Relativism

Summary: In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. D

  • Author : J. David Velleman
  • Publisher: Open Book Publishers
  • ISBN: 1783740329
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 156
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1832
  • Downloads: 1832
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Description: In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. David Velleman shows that different communities can indeed be subject to incompatible moralities, because their local mores are rationally binding. At the same time, he explains why the mores of different communities, even when incompatible, are still variations on the same moral themes. The book thus maps out a universe of many moral worlds without, as Velleman puts it, "moral black holes”. The six self-standing chapters discuss such diverse topics as online avatars and virtual worlds, lying in Russian and truth-telling in Quechua, the pleasure of solitude and the fear of absurdity. Accessibly written, this book presupposes no prior training in philosophy.


Pdf ebook: A Companion to Experimental Philosophy

Pdf download ebook A Companion to Experimental Philosophy

Summary: This is a comprehensive collection of essays that explores cutting-edge work in experimental philosophy, a radical new movement that applies quantitative a

  • Author : Justin Sytsma,Wesley Buckwalter
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118661680
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 640
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1685
  • Downloads: 1685
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Description: This is a comprehensive collection of essays that explores cutting-edge work in experimental philosophy, a radical new movement that applies quantitative and empirical methods to traditional topics of philosophical inquiry. Situates the discipline within Western philosophy and then surveys the work of experimental philosophers by sub-discipline Contains insights for a diverse range of fields, including linguistics, cognitive science, anthropology, economics, and psychology, as well as almost every area of professional philosophy today Edited by two rising scholars who take a broad and inclusive approach to the field Offers a complete introduction for non-specialists and students to the central approaches, findings, challenges, and controversies in experimental philosophy


Pdf ebook: Though All Things Differ

Pdf download ebook Though All Things Differ

Summary: Pluralism is a political belief that acknowledges individuals’ rights to pursue their interests, but requires society to resolve differences where they i

  • Author : Eva Wollenberg,Citalli López,Jon Anderson
  • Publisher: CIFOR
  • ISBN: 9793361719
  • Genre: Cultural pluralism
  • Number of Pages: 101
  • Language: English
  • Views: 760
  • Downloads: 760
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Description: Pluralism is a political belief that acknowledges individuals’ rights to pursue their interests, but requires society to resolve differences where they infringe upon each other. This guide shows how pluralism helps people to value social differences and provides clear principles and rules about how to coordinate those differences. The guide reviews pluralism’s origins, key elements and strengths and weaknesses. It examines how people think about differences, including the psychological obstacles that cause us to exclude or ignore others. Practices are examined with examples drawn from forest-related contexts: legal pluralism, multistakeholder processes and diversity in work teams. Questions are provided to help the reader assess and practice pluralism in their own settings. The guide concludes that understanding the political assumptions and principles of pluralism can enrich our understanding of current practices to develop fundamentally new approaches to forest decision-making.


Pdf ebook: Epistemic Relativism

Pdf download ebook Epistemic Relativism

Summary: Markus Seidel provides a detailed critique of epistemic relativism in the sociology of scientific knowledge. In addition to scrutinizing the main arguments

  • Author : M. Seidel
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1137377895
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 284
  • Language: English
  • Views: 791
  • Downloads: 791
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Description: Markus Seidel provides a detailed critique of epistemic relativism in the sociology of scientific knowledge. In addition to scrutinizing the main arguments for epistemic relativism he provides an absolutist account that nevertheless aims at integrating the relativist's intuition.


Pdf ebook: Rethinking Media Pluralism

Pdf download ebook Rethinking Media Pluralism

Summary: Contends that the notions of media pluralism and diversity have been reduced to empty catchphrases or conflated with consumer choice and market competition

  • Author : Kari Karppinen
  • Publisher: Fordham Univ Press
  • ISBN: 0823245128
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 239
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1744
  • Downloads: 1744
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Description: Contends that the notions of media pluralism and diversity have been reduced to empty catchphrases or conflated with consumer choice and market competition.


Pdf ebook: A Refutation of Moral Relativism

Pdf download ebook A Refutation of Moral Relativism

Summary: No issue is more fateful for civilization than moral relativism. History knows not one example of a successful society which repudiated moral absolutes. Ye

  • Author : Peter Kreeft
  • Publisher: Ignatius Press
  • ISBN: 1681490188
  • Genre: Religion
  • Number of Pages: 180
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1206
  • Downloads: 1206
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Description: No issue is more fateful for civilization than moral relativism. History knows not one example of a successful society which repudiated moral absolutes. Yet most attacks on relativism have been either pragmatic (looking at its social consequences) or exhorting (preaching rather than proving), and philosophers' arguments against it have been specialized, technical, and scholarly. In his typical unique writing style, Peter Kreeft lets an attractive, honest, and funny relativist interview a "Muslim fundamentalist" absolutist so as not to stack the dice personally for absolutism. In an engaging series of personal interviews, every conceivable argument the "sassy Black feminist" reporter Libby gives against absolutism is simply and clearly refuted, and none of the many arguments for moral absolutism is refuted.


Pdf ebook: The Geography of Morals

Pdf download ebook The Geography of Morals

Summary: The Geography of Morals is a work of extraordinary ambition: an indictment of the parochialism of Western philosophy, a comprehensive dialogue between anth

  • Author : Owen Flanagan
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0190212179
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 304
  • Language: English
  • Views: 984
  • Downloads: 984
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Description: The Geography of Morals is a work of extraordinary ambition: an indictment of the parochialism of Western philosophy, a comprehensive dialogue between anthropology, empirical moral psychology, behavioral economics, and cross-cultural philosophy, and a deep exploration of the opportunities for self, social, and political improvement provided by world philosophy. We live in multicultural, cosmopolitan worlds. These worlds are distinctive moral ecologies in which people enact and embody different lived philosophies and conceive of mind, morals, and the meaning of life differently from the typical WEIRD -- Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic -- person. This is not a predicament; it is an opportunity. Many think that cross cultural understanding is useful for developing a modus vivendi where people from different worlds are not at each other's throats and tolerate each other. Flanagan presses the much more exciting possibility that cross-cultural philosophy provides opportunities for exploring the varieties of moral possibility, learning from other traditions, and for self, social, and political improvement. There are ways of worldmaking in other living traditions -- Confucian, Daoist, Buddhist, Hindu, Jain, Muslim, Amerindian, and African -- that citizens in Western countries can benefit from. Cross-cultural learning is protection against what Alasdair MacIntyre refers to as being "imprisoned by one's upbringing." Flanagan takes up perennial topics of whether there is anything to the idea of a common human nature, psychobiological sources of human morality, the nature of the self, the role of moral excellence in a good human life, and whether and how empirical inquiry into morality can contribute to normative ethics. The Geography of Morals exemplifies how one can respectfully conceive of multiculturalism and global interaction as providing not only opportunities for business and commerce, but also opportunities for socio-moral and political improvement on all sides. This is a book that aims to change how normative ethics and moral psychology are done.


Pdf ebook: The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Humility

Pdf download ebook The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Humility

Summary: Humility is a vital aspect of political discussion, social media and self-help, whilst recent empirical research has linked humility to improved well-being

  • Author : Mark Alfano,Michael P. Lynch,Alessandra Tanesini
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1351107526
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 504
  • Language: English
  • Views: 463
  • Downloads: 463
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Description: Humility is a vital aspect of political discussion, social media and self-help, whilst recent empirical research has linked humility to improved well-being, open-mindedness and increased accuracy in assessing persuasive messages. It is also a topic central to research and discussion in philosophy, applied ethics and religious studies. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Humility is the first collection to present a comprehensive overview of the philosophy of humility, whilst also covering important interdisciplinary topics. Comprising 41 chapters by an international team of contributors, the Handbook is divided into seven parts: • Theories of humility • The ethics of humility • The politics of humility • Humility in religious thought • The epistemology of humility • The psychology of humility • Humility: applications to the social world. Essential reading for students and researchers in ethics, epistemology, political philosophy and philosophy of mind and psychology, this Handbook will also be extremely useful for those in related disciplines such as psychology, religious studies and law.


Pdf ebook: The Emotional Construction of Morals

Pdf download ebook The Emotional Construction of Morals

Summary: Jesse Prinz argues that recent work in philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology supports two radical hypotheses about the nature of morality: moral value

  • Author : Jesse Prinz
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191608629
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 348
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1698
  • Downloads: 1698
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Description: Jesse Prinz argues that recent work in philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology supports two radical hypotheses about the nature of morality: moral values are based on emotional responses, and these emotional responses are inculcated by culture, not hard-wired through natural selection. In the first half of the book, Jesse Prinz defends the hypothesis that morality has an emotional foundation. Evidence from brain imaging, social psychology, and psychopathology suggest that, when we judge something to be right or wrong, we are merely expressing our emotions. Prinz argues that these emotions do not track objective features of reality; rather, the rightness and wrongness of an act consists in the fact that people are disposed to have certain emotions towards it. In the second half of the book, he turns to a defence of moral relativism. Moral facts depend on emotional responses, and emotional responses vary from culture to culture. Prinz surveys the anthropological record to establish moral variation, and he draws on cultural history to show how attitudes toward practices such as cannibalism and marriage change over time. He also criticizes evidence from animal behaviour and child development that has been taken to support the claim that moral attitudes are hard-wired by natural selection. Prinz concludes that there is no single true morality, but he also argues that some moral values are better than others; moral progress is possible. Throughout the book, Prinz relates his views to contemporary and historical work in philosophical ethics. His views echo themes in the writings of David Hume and Friedrich Nietzsche, but Prinz supports, extends, and revises these classic theories using the resources of cutting-edge cognitive science. The Emotional Construction of Morals will stimulate and challenge anyone who is curious about the nature and origin of moral values.


Pdf ebook: Understanding Ethics and Responsibilities in a Globalizing World

Pdf download ebook Understanding Ethics and Responsibilities in a Globalizing World

Summary: This book contemplates the ethics of responsibility in a large range of meanings, consequences and impacts. It reflects the perspectives and reasoning of 2

  • Author : Maria Cecilia Coutinho de Arruda,Boleslaw Rok
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319230816
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 308
  • Language: English
  • Views: 793
  • Downloads: 793
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Description: This book contemplates the ethics of responsibility in a large range of meanings, consequences and impacts. It reflects the perspectives and reasoning of 24 authors from all continents. All chapters are original papers presented at the Fifth World ISBEE Congress, that took place in Warsaw, Poland, at the Kozminski University, on 11-14 of July, 2012. In this book, ethics and responsibility are considered essential traits of character, not only in the business or governmental arenas but in any initiative, decision and activity. The contributions to this book focus on a spectrum of themes, terms and concepts, the global corporate social responsibilities perspective covering impacts, challenges, analysis, criticism, consequences of important topics of real life, sustainability, international economy and regimes, corruption, poverty and violence, among others. The book is intended for academics, researchers and professionals in all continents who are dedicated to Ethics, Business Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, Social Innovation, and Sustainability Management.


Pdf ebook: Justice

Pdf download ebook Justice

Summary: What are our obligations to others as people in a free society? Should government tax the rich to help the poor? Is the free market fair? Is it sometimes w

  • Author : Michael J. Sandel
  • Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
  • ISBN: 9781429952682
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 320
  • Language: English
  • Views: 903
  • Downloads: 903
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Description: What are our obligations to others as people in a free society? Should government tax the rich to help the poor? Is the free market fair? Is it sometimes wrong to tell the truth? Is killing sometimes morally required? Is it possible, or desirable, to legislate morality? Do individual rights and the common good conflict? Michael J. Sandel's "Justice" course is one of the most popular and influential at Harvard. Up to a thousand students pack the campus theater to hear Sandel relate the big questions of political philosophy to the most vexing issues of the day, and this fall, public television will air a series based on the course. Justice offers readers the same exhilarating journey that captivates Harvard students. This book is a searching, lyrical exploration of the meaning of justice, one that invites readers of all political persuasions to consider familiar controversies in fresh and illuminating ways. Affirmative action, same-sex marriage, physician-assisted suicide, abortion, national service, patriotism and dissent, the moral limits of markets—Sandel dramatizes the challenge of thinking through these con?icts, and shows how a surer grasp of philosophy can help us make sense of politics, morality, and our own convictions as well. Justice is lively, thought-provoking, and wise—an essential new addition to the small shelf of books that speak convincingly to the hard questions of our civic life.


Pdf ebook: Liberalism and Pluralism

Pdf download ebook Liberalism and Pluralism

Summary: In Liberalism and Pluralism the author explores the challenges conflicting values, interests and identities pose to liberal democracy. Richard Bellamy illu

  • Author : Richard Bellamy
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1134643756
  • Genre: Political Science
  • Number of Pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1992
  • Downloads: 1992
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Description: In Liberalism and Pluralism the author explores the challenges conflicting values, interests and identities pose to liberal democracy. Richard Bellamy illustrates his criticism and proposals by reference to such topical issues as the citizens charter, constitutional reform, the Rushdie affair and the development of the European Union.


Pdf ebook: The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

Pdf download ebook The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics

Summary: Philosophical ethics consists in the human endeavour to answer rationally the fundamental question of how we should live. The Oxford Handbook of the Histor

  • Author : Roger Crisp
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191655767
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 920
  • Language: English
  • Views: 817
  • Downloads: 817
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Description: Philosophical ethics consists in the human endeavour to answer rationally the fundamental question of how we should live. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics explores the history of philosophical ethics in the western tradition from Homer until the present day. It provides a broad overview of the views of many of the main thinkers, schools, and periods, and includes in addition essays on topics such as autonomy and impartiality. The authors are international leaders in their field, and use their expertise and specialist knowledge to illuminate the relevance of their work to discussions in contemporary ethics. The essays are specially written for this volume, and in each case introduce the reader to the main lines of interpretation and criticism that have arisen in the professional history of philosophy over the past two or three decades.


Pdf ebook: Aspiration

Pdf download ebook Aspiration

Summary: Becoming someone is a learning process; and what we learn is the new values around which, if we succeed, our lives will come to turn. Agents transform them

  • Author : Agnes Callard
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0190639504
  • Genre: Philosophy
  • Number of Pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Views: 1042
  • Downloads: 1042
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Description: Becoming someone is a learning process; and what we learn is the new values around which, if we succeed, our lives will come to turn. Agents transform themselves in the process of, for example, becoming parents, embarking on careers, or acquiring a passion for music or politics. How can such activity be rational, if the reason for engaging in the relevant pursuit is only available to the person one will become? How is it psychologically possible to feel the attraction of a form of concern that is not yet one's own? How can the work done to arrive at the finish line be ascribed to one who doesn't (really) know what one is doing, or why one is doing it? In Aspiration, Agnes Callard asserts that these questions belong to the theory of aspiration. Aspirants are motivated by proleptic reasons, acknowledged defective versions of the reasons they expect to eventually grasp. The psychology of such a transformation is marked by intrinsic conflict between their old point of view on value and the one they are trying to acquire. They cannot adjudicate this conflict by deliberating or choosing or deciding-rather, they resolve it by working to see the world in a new way. This work has a teleological structure: by modeling oneself on the person he or she is trying to be, the aspirant brings that person into being. Because it is open to us to engage in an activity of self-creation, we are responsible for having become the kinds of people we are.